The module enables students not only to identify medicines but also to quantify them in their pure form in pharmaceutical formulations and in biological liquids through various techniques such as Infrared spectrophotometry, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance techniques (protons and carbon 13), mass spectrometry and chromatography (thin layer, paper, open column chromatography, gas chromatography, high-performance chromatography).
This kind of knowledge is considered fundamental and essential for the possible future professional employment of a pharmacy graduate in a Pharmaceutical Analysis Laboratory.
Course Content (Syllabus)
Infrared Absorption spectrophotometry. Principle of the method, recording techniques of infrared spectrums, the use of infrared in the qualitative control of the pharmaceutical active substances, clarification of the creation of a drug substance, quantification through b Spectroscopy of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance: Principles of the method, scanning techniques, pulse technique, proton NMR spectra, factors influencing chemical shifts-electronegativity-shielding and deshielding : the presence of electro negative atoms in the pharmaceutical molecules(electronegative groups ,such as fluorine /iodine etc withdraw electron density from other groups –inductive effect- and this deshielding effect means that the neibouring hydrogen atoms experience a greater nett magnetic field, and, precess with higher frequency), the induced anisotropic magnetic field around a hydrogen atom-diamagnetic and paramagnetic (deshielding) effect, interpretability of all the data.
NMR quantification: quantification of pharmaceutical substances on the basis of the proton absorption resonances, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectra of Carbon-13. Quantifications of pharmaceutical substances on the basis of resonance absorption of C-13. Use of the internal standard substance and construction a calibration curve.
Chromatogaphy: principle, classification of chromatographic methods, applications in Pharmacetical Analysis., the importance of chromatography in Pharmaceutical.Analysis., materials that are used as stationary phase in various chromatographic methods. Chromatography isotherms, open-column chromatography, flat chromatographic methods: paper chromatography, thin layer chromatography.Gas chromatography (GSC, GLC), liquid chromatography, normal and reverse phase). Comparison of chromatographic methods, chromatographic parameters (development), comparison of chromatographic methods and other analysis methods, chromatographic systems for HLPC applications. Selection of chromatographic system, preparation and de-gasing of the mobile phase, conservation of the column. Quality evaluation of chromatograms. Development of chromatographic system and improvement of its quality. Applications of chromatographic methods for the determination of active substances in formulations and in biological liquids.
Mass photometry: Basic principle of the method. Instrumentation. Characteristics of the molecular ion. Metastable peaks. Study of splitting mechanisms of various groups of medicines (examples of 2-imidazolines and benzodiazepines). Applications.