Course Information
FacultyHealth Sciences
Cycle / Level1st / Undergraduate
Teaching PeriodWinter
Course ID180000274

Class Information
Academic Year2012 – 2013
Class PeriodSpring
Faculty Instructors
Weekly Hours5
Class ID
Course Type 2016-2020
  • Scientific Area
Course Type 2011-2015
Specific Foundation / Core
Mode of Delivery
  • Face to face
Digital Course Content
Language of Instruction
  • Greek (Instruction, Examination)
Learning Outcomes
Understanding by the students of the general content of Pharmacognosy and especially of substances belonging to groups of carbohydrates, lipids, and phenols and their derivatives. In order to achieve these objectives, the physical, chemical and biological properties of these substances are presented, as well as their chemical classification, their biosynthesis and medicinal plants containing them. It will also discussed uses of medicinal plants whose main active ingredients belong in these categories of natural products. Moreover, in the laboratory work the students will know and will analyze herbal medicines included in the European Pharmacopoeia 5, using the appropriate analytical methods (microscopic and phytochemical). Skills: Familiarity with basic knowledge of Pharmacognosy. Also, knowledge of phytochemical groups of carbohydrates, lipids and phenols as well as of herbal medicines containing them.
General Competences
  • Apply knowledge in practice
  • Generate new research ideas
  • Design and manage projects
Course Content (Syllabus)
CARBOHYDRATES, LIPIDS, AND PHENOL DERIVATIVES Introduction. Generally, control specifications of herbal medicines and herbal medicinal products of the European Pharmacopoeia 5 (Phytochemical, microscopic, etc.). General scheme of biosynthetic pathways of primary and secondary metabolites. 1. CARBOHYDRATES. • Simple sugars: Structure-Physiochemical properties. Series D-, L-. Cyclic structures. Configuration. Hexoses-Deoxysugars. Polyols and derivatives of sugars. Herbal medicines and constituents of pharmaceutical interest. • Oligosaccharides and their derivatives-Cyclodextrins. • Polysaccharides: Structures-Physiochemical properties. Extraction, isolation and identification of structures. Polysaccharides of bacteria and fungi. (Dextrans, Lentnanes, Xanthan gum). Polysaccharides of algae. • Homogeneous polysaccharides: Structure-Physiochemical properties. Starch, Cellulose, Semi-synthetic derivatives. Herbal medicines. Fructans. • Fibre: Cotton, dietary fiber (Composition, structure, uses, biological properties). • Heterogeneous polysaccharides: Mucilage, gums (Chemical composition, physicochemical properties, medicinal plants, pectins). • Natural products related to carbohydrates (with similar chemical structure): 2-Deoxystreptamin, Gentamycin, Streptomycin. 2. PLANT LIPIDS. • Triglycerides, fatty acids, oils: Structures-Physiochemical properties, Pharmaceutical uses. • Plant lipids- Essential fatty acids and biosynthesis of leukotrienes, prostaglandins, thromboxanes. Medicinal plants • Mustard oils: Structures, classification, extraction, isolation, hydrolysis, Quantification, medicinal plants, uses, toxicity. • Other sulfur compounds, herbal medicines, uses • Components structurally related to lipids, Acetogenins, Glycoretines of Convolvulaceae. • Several other plant chemical structures. Cyanogenic glycosides: Structures, biosynthesis, toxicity and plants. • Non-standard toxic amino acids (Lathyrism), Lectins. Plants, toxicity. 3. PHENOLS AND THEIR DERIVATIVES. Generally, groups of natural structures, acidity of phenols related to the structure (resonance phenomena). Reactions of phenols. General reagents for the detection of phenolic structures. Biosynthesis 1) the shikimic acid pathway and 2) the malonic acid pathway • Cinnamic acids, aryl- propenyl-phenols, Phenolic acids and benzene derivatives. Physicochemical properties, Extraction, Isolation, Pharmacology, Uses. • Coumarins: Simple, furan-, pyran- glycosides - Biosynthesis. Physicochemical properties, Extraction, Isolation and Determination of their structures. Herbal drugs containing coumarins. Toxic compounds, phototoxicity. Plants with pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical interest. • Lignans, Neolignans and their derivatives. Biosynthesis. Structures with biological interest. • Flavonoids: Chemical structures, Biosynthesis, Extraction, Isolation, Determination of their structures (flavones, flavonols, flavanones, flavanolols, isoflavones, chalcones, aurones, anthocyanes, glycosides O-, C-, S-). Reactions. Uses. Flavonoids and Reactive oxygen species (antioxidant-prooxidant), enzyme inhibitors, estrogenic activity (isoflavones). Plants: Citrus spp., Ginkgo, Passiflora, Thymus, Chamamillae, Achilea, Equisetum, Tiliae, Sambucus, Filipendula, Viola, Solidago, Passiflora, Soya. • Rotenoids, neoflavonoids, flavonolignans, anthocyans: Physicochemical properties, Chemical structures, Pharmacology. Medicinal plants: Vaccinium myrtillus, V. macrocarpon, Ribes nigrum, Sambucus nigra, Silybium marianum. • Tannins. General. Classes of tannins. Hydrolysable and condensed tannins. Physicochemical properties. Natural sources. Detection reaction. Chemical properties. Biological activity. Medicinal plants: Quercus spp., Hamamelidis virginiana, Krameria triandra, Crataegus monogyna, Pinus spp., Cupressus semprevirens. • Styryl-pyrones: structures, Physicochemical and biological properties. Piper methysticum. • Stilbens: structures, properties. • Quinones, naphthoquinones, naphtodianthrones, miltionones, anthrones, anthranoles, anthraquinones. Homo- and Heterodianthrones. Chemical structures and biosynthsis. Quinones - Biological properties, medical uses. Quinones and allergies. • Plants with naphthoquinones. Drosera spp., Junglans regia, Lawsonia inermis. Plants with anthraquinones. • Homo- and Heterodianthrones. Physicochemical and pharmacological properties. Medical uses of plants containing anthraquinones. Medicinal plants: Cassia angustifolia and Cassia senna L., Rhamnus frangula L., Rhamnus pursiana DC., Aloe spp., Rheum spp. • Medicinal plants containing naphthoquinones, orcinols and phloroglucinols. Hypericum perforatum L., Humulus lupulus, Malotus philippinensis. LABORATORY WORK: Microscopic and Phytochemical control of herbal drugs containing phenols and/or phenol derivatives of the European Pharmacopoeia 5. Microscopic control: Starches (Amylum Solani, Amylum Oryzae, Amylum Maydis, Amylum Tritici, Amylum Marantae), Fibers (Cotton, Flax, Silk, Wool), Flores Malvae, Flores Tiliae, Folia Sennae, Rhizoma Rhei, Herba Hyperici, Fructus Anisi vulgaris, Fructus Foeniculi, Semina Psylii, Folia Gingo biloba Phytochemical control: Extraction of phenolic compounds – Isolation of hesperedin (from orange peel), hydrolysis of hesperidin, Folia Sennae – Qualitative and Quantitative determination of anthraquinones
Use of Information and Communication Technologies
Use of ICT
  • Use of ICT in Course Teaching
Course Organization
Laboratory Work260.9
Student Assessment
Written exam at the end of the semester. To compute the final grade, the grade which is given by each tutor (5.0) is added. The examination at the end of the semester is performed at dates, time and place arranged by the department The duration of the examination is 3 hours for the two tutors.
Student Assessment methods
  • Written Exam with Short Answer Questions (Summative)
Course Bibliography (Eudoxus)
Gunnar Samuelson, ΦΑΡΜΑΚΕΥΤΙΚΑ ΠΡΟΪΟΝΤΑ ΦΥΣΙΚΗΣ ΠΡΟΕΛΕΥΣΗΣ, Απόδοση στην Ελληνική: Π. Κορδοπάτης, Ε. Μάνεση-Ζούπα, Γ. Πάιρας, Πανεπιστημιακές Εκδόσεις Κρήτης, Ηράκλειο 1996
Additional bibliography for study
European Pharmacopoeia 5. J. Bruneton. Pharmacognosie, Phytochimie, Plantes médicinales 3th édition Ed. TEC/DOC Paris 1999. R. Hansel, O. Sticher. Pharmacognosie-Phytopharmazie. 7 Auflage, Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg 2004. Σημείωσεις που διανέμονται από τους διδάσκοντες
Last Update