Course Content (Syllabus)
Biostatistics (Theoretical lectures 18 hours)
Teaching staff: Christos Batzios, Alexandros Theodoridis
This course introduces concepts that will provide the student with a solid theoretical and empirical background for developing skills regarding the use of quantitative methods of Biostatistics for the collection, the presentatiuon, the analysis and the evaluation of sampling data. Emphasis is given on the empirical application of Biostatistics and on the statistical assessment and interpretation of bio-medical and agricultural data in order to support rational decision making regarding speifc problems in research and animal heath care.
1st hour Introduction to Statistics
The nature of Statistics
The use of computers in statistical analysis
Populations and samples
Basic statistical terms (variable, observation, populations, samples, etc.)
2nd hour Presentation and classification of statistical data
Statistical tables and charts
Frequency distributions (continuous, discrete and qualitative variables)
Graphical presentation of frequency distributions
3rd-5th hour Statistical measures
Basic measures of central tendency (arithmetical mean, weighted mean, median, mode, geometrical mean, quartiles, etc.)
Choice of appropriate measure of central tendency
Measures of dispersion (range, interquartile range, mean absolute deviation, variance, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, Tchebysheff’s theorem, empirical rule)
The effect of simple transformations on mean and variance
Measures of skewness, measures of kurtosis
6th hour Elements of probability theory, random variables
Statistical experiment, test, events etc
The meaning of probability (classical definition of probability, definition of probability as limit of relative frequency, definition of subjective probability, axiomatic definition of probability)
Calculation of probability, basic theorems of probability, probability rules (multiplication rule, addition rule, Bayes theorem)
Random variables and probability distributions (discrete and continuous probability distributions, discrete and continuous random variables)
7th-9th hour Theoretical distributions
Discrete theoretical distributions (Binomial distribution, Poisson distribution)
Continuous theoretical distributions (normal distribution, standard normal distribution Z, chi-squared distribution, t distribution, F distribution)
10th-11th hour Sampling (methods, distributions)
Principles of sampling (random and directed sampling)
Sampling distributions of the mean, of the proportion, of the difference between two means, of the variance, etc
The central limit theorem
12th hour Estimation
Point and interval estimation
Confidence interval of the mean, of the variance, of the difference between two means, of the proportion, etc
Sampling errors
Determination of sample size
13th-14th hour Hypothesis testing
Statistical hypotheses
Hypothesis test and errors
Hypothesis test about a mean and the difference between two means
Hypothesis test of the variance and the ratio of two variances
Hypothesis test of the proportion and the difference between two proportions
15th hour Analysis of frequencies
Test of goodness-of-fit
Test of independence
Test of homogeneity
16th hour General principles of analysis of variance
One way analysis of variance
The completely randomized design, multiple comparisons tests
Hypotheses in analysis of variance
17th hour Non-parametric hypothesis tests
Test of goodness-of-fit (K-S)
Tests for two samples, tests for k samples
Transormations and normality, etc
18th hour Simple regression and correlation
Least squares method
Interpretation of the regression equation
Linear correlation
Exercises - Laboratories (16 hours)
2 hours
Construction of distribution tables with classification of data for continuous and discrete var-iables of Veterinary Science interest. Methods of graphical presentation of frequency distribu-tions (histograms, polygonal lines etc)
3 hours
Examples of calculation of descriptive measures of central tendency. Choice of appropriate measure of central tendency. Applications of calculation of statistical measures of dispersion, skewness and kurtosis
3 hours
Calculation of probability. Examples of use of tables of theoretical distributions (Binomial distribution, Poisson distribution, Z distribution, t distribution, chi-squared distribution, F dis-tribution). Examples of probability calculation and sampling error when sampling with and without replacement. Applications of the central limit theorem. Calculation of confidence in-terval of the mean, the variance, the difference between two means, the proportions etc
3 hours
Problems of sample size calculation when the objective is the estimation of the mean or the proportion in simple random and stratified random sampling. Problems of hypothesis testing for the mean, the difference between two means, the proportion, the difference between two proportions, the variance, the ratio of two variances
2 hours
Problems of testing goodness-of-fit. Analysis of frequencies classified in tables 2x2, 2xc, rxc with the application of test for independence and homogeneity
3 hours
Databases for agricultural research. Retrieving data from FAO databases (Agriculture, Fisher-ies…). Use of statistical package SPSS for descriptive and inferential analysis of experimental data, estimation and interpretation of regression equations, analysis of variance and non-parametrical analysis, with emphasis given on interpretation of results