Following successful completion of the course, students know all basic pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic principles, as well as the mechanism of action, the pharmacokinetics, the actions, the interactions and the side effects of diuretics and of the drugs acting on the blood and on the nervous, cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive and endocrine systems.
Course Content (Syllabus)
Introduction to Pharmacology. Definitions, Study interests of Veterinary Pharmacology, Branches of Pharmacology, Sources of drugs. Routes of drug administration. Pharmacokinetics (Introduction to Pharmacokinetics – Drug absorption and distribution-
Drug metabolism and elimination).
Pharmacodynamics (Mechanisms of action of drugs, drug interactions and antagonism, factors that determine the relation between drug concentration and pharmacological response. Drug adverse effects and drug toxicity, genetic factors, drug actions and safety).
Drugs acting on the nervous system: Drugs acting on the Autonomic Nervous System: adrenoceptor agonists (non-selective; α- and β-adrenoceptor agonists; selective β2-adrenoceptor agonists); Adrenoceptor blocking drugsc (α- and β-adrenoceptor blocking drugs; Selective β1-adrenoceptor blocking drugs); Cholinergic pharmacology: cholinoceptor-activating drugs; cholinesterase-inhibiting drugs; antimuscarinic drugs; autonomic ganglion blocking drugs. Muscle relaxants: neuromuscular blocking drugs (depolarizing – non-depolarizing blocking drugs); centrally acting muscle relaxants. General anaesthetics (inhalational and intravenous anaesthetics) pro anaesthesia drugs. Local anaesthetics. Tranquilizers, sedatives, hypnotics, antiepileptics and analgesics , centrally acting muscle relaxants.
Diuretics: osmotic diuretics; methylxanthines; carbonic anhydrase inhibitors; loop diuretics; thiazides; aldosterone inhibitors; potassium-retaining diuretics. Drugs used for the management of fluid and electrolytes balance
Drugs acting on the cardiovasular system: Agents used in cardiac arrhythmias: sodium channel blockers; β-adrenoceptor blocking drugs; agents that prolong action potential duration; calcium channel blockers; other antiarrhythmics. Drugs used in heart failure: inotropic agents; digitalis glycosides; cardiac phosphodiesterase inhibitors; pimovendane; sympathomimetics; methylxanthines; parasympatholytics. Vasodilators: (ACE inhibitors; angiotensin II receptor antagonists; α1-adrenergic antagonists; NO donors; calcium channel blockers; direct acting vasodilators; hydralazine). Antihypertensives. Antianginal drugs.
Drugs acting on the blood: anticoagulants; antiplatelet drugs; thrombolytics; antihaemorrhagic agents. Antianaemic drugs: Drugs administered in iron-deficiency, in megaloblastic and in aplastic anaemias
Drugs acting on the respiratory system
Expectorants; mucolytics; bronchodilators; histamine, antihistamines and allergies; mast-cell stabilizers; drugs used for the management of asthma; antitussives; respiratory stimulants
Drugs acting on the digestive system
Drugs used to inhibit or neutralize gastric acid secretion: antacids; acid secretion reducers (H2-receptor antagonists; proton-pump inhibitors); enhancing mucosal resistance drugs (sucralfate, prostaglandins). Drugs acting on the motility and the secretions of the digestive system: drugs used to treat gastro-oesophageal reflux disease; antispasmodics; antidopaminergics; prokinetics. Laxatives: bulk producing laxatives; osmotics; motility stimulant laxatives; lubricant laxatives. Antidiarrhoeal drugs: adsorbent antidiarrhoeal drugs; antimotility antidiarrhoeal drugs. Antiemetics (centrally and peripherally acting ); Emetics; Anticirrhotics; Choleretics
Endocrine: Drugs affecting glucose metabolism, thyroid drugs, pituitary and reproductive hormones: Antidiabetic drugs, glucose elevating drugs, thyroid drugs (thyroid hormones, antithyroid drugs). Anterior pituitary hormones, posterior pituitary hormones, pituitary and non‐pituitary gonadotropins, sex hormones (estrogens, progestins, prostaglandins, androgens, anabolic steroids).
drugs, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, mechanism of action, nervous system, cardiovascular system, respiratory system, digestive system, blood, diuretics, glucose metabolism, thyroid drugs, hormones