Examinations are taken in writing, in Greek or in English. They include two separate questions, which must all be answered in lengthy answers, requiring the use of historical judgment. Answers must be given in a clear logical structure, with articulated argumentation. They must combine relevant elements from the materials of our Course and the lectures attended, as well as from your general knowledge and your interaction with current affairs. They must show that you studied in depth the issues examined in this Course, exercising your judgment and avoiding the use of cliches, stereotypical expressions, or generalities. Essays marked with the grade 'excellent' show a critical spirit and are characterised by clarity and concision. A passing grade requires proven knowledge of the basic pragmatological elements of our Course. Essays not showing a serious study of the required texts fail.