Introduction to traditional logic: The Port-Royal logic (1662)

Course Information
TitleΕισαγωγή στην παραδοσιακή λογική: η λογική του Port-Royal (1662) / Introduction to traditional logic: The Port-Royal logic (1662)
SchoolPhilosophy and Education
Cycle / Level1st / Undergraduate, 2nd / Postgraduate
Teaching PeriodSpring
CoordinatorPantelis Golitsis
Course ID600018156

Programme of Study: UPS School of Philosophy and Education (2011-today)

Registered students: 17
OrientationAttendance TypeSemesterYearECTS
CoreElective Courses belonging to the selected specializationWinter/Spring-6
PhilosophyElected Compulsory DirectionalWinter/Spring-6

Class Information
Academic Year2019 – 2020
Class PeriodSpring
Faculty Instructors
Weekly Hours3
Total Hours39
Class ID
Course Type 2016-2020
  • Scientific Area
Course Type 2011-2015
Knowledge Deepening / Consolidation
Mode of Delivery
  • Face to face
Digital Course Content
The course is also offered to exchange programme students.
Language of Instruction
  • Greek (Instruction, Examination)
  • English (Examination)
  • French (Examination)
  • German (Examination)
  • Italian (Examination)
Learning Outcomes
Through this course, students will: - be introduced to Aristotelian logic (term logic); - become acquainted with modern logic and its relation to Cartesian theory of knowledge; - understand the fundamental differences between modern (traditional) and symbolic logic.
General Competences
  • Be critical and self-critical
  • Advance free, creative and causative thinking
Course Content (Syllabus)
The Port-Royal Logic, a work by Antoine Arnauld and Pierre Nicole published anonymously in French in 1662 under the title L'art de penser, and translated into Latin in 1700 as Ars cogitandi, is crucial for the evolution and history of logic in modern times. Differentiating themselves from the scholastic and neo-scholastic Aristotelian tradition, according to which logic culminates in syllogistic reasoning (and, particularly, in the apodeictic syllogism), the authors, who lived in the convent of Port-Royal in Paris, transferred the center of logic from the syllogism (ratiocinatio) to judgment (iudicium), considering that logical faults occur more frequently at the level of the mental operation of judgment, which precedes the mental operation of reasoning. Moreover, as they believed that judgment is formed according the composition or division of concepts that mentally precede judgment, the two French philosophers attempted to establish the right judgment upon the concept as a clear and distinct idea (idea clara et distincta) in accordance with Descartes’ teachings. Although the structure of the Port-Royal Logic presupposes the distinction between logica naturalis, which can be mistaken. and logica artificialis, which can be free from error, thereby confusing logic with theory of knowledge, it is a prominent example of the logic of modern times, which renewed traditional logic with the help of a Cartesian theory of knowledge. It was overcome only in the end of the nineteenth century and in the beginning of the twentieth century thanks to the mathematical logic of Gottlob Frege and of Bertrand Russell and Alfred North Whitehead.
Logic, Theory of knowledge, Port-Royal, Descartes, Aristotle
Educational Material Types
  • Notes
Use of Information and Communication Technologies
Use of ICT
  • Use of ICT in Course Teaching
  • Use of ICT in Communication with Students
Course Organization
Reading Assigment502
Student Assessment
Student Assessment methods
  • Written Exam with Short Answer Questions (Summative)
  • Written Exam with Extended Answer Questions (Summative)
Course Bibliography (Eudoxus)
1) Σ. Κουσούλης, Η αριστοτέλεια συλλογιστική, Θεσσαλονίκη: Σάκκουλας, 2002. 2) Christof Rapp, Εισαγωγή στον Αριστοτέλη, Αθήνα: Εκδόσεις Οκτώ, 2012.
Additional bibliography for study
1) Αρνώ – Λανσελό, Γενική και λελογισμένη γραμματική του Πορ-Ρουαγιάλ, Αθήνα: Καστανιώτης, 1999. 2) René Descartes: Κανόνες για τον κατευθυσμό της γνωστικής δύναμης. Πρόλογος – εισαγωγή – μετάφραση: Θ. Πενολίδης, Αθήνα: Κράτερος, 2011.
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