The main objective of the course is to understand the concept of particle size and its methods of measurement. Understanding key processes used in the production of pharmaceuticals and pharmaceuticals in general, such as crystallization, grinding, mixing, particle separation and drying including freeze drying. Laboratory practical work and video demonstrations are complementary used aiming to acquaint students with the above unit operations.
Course Content (Syllabus)
General aspects about pharmaceutical industry. Phases of the development of pharmaceutical dosage forms. Production and marketing license. Fundamental unit operations. Crystallization-Mechanism, methods and devices. Reduction in size - Mechanism, properties of materials that affect, energy vision, special cases. Methods and devices. Size of particles obtained and changes during milling. Mechanical particle separations - Methods, Estimation of Efficiency. Separation from carrier gas by sieving, aerodynamic sorting, settling, elution. Filtration and factors affect it, mechanisms, media and filtration devices. Blending Powders - Mechanism of random mixing and interacting components. Sampling, sample size and effectiveness indicators. Factors affecting: component ratio, particle size, shape and density, moisture, static electricity, mixing chamber filling rate. Types, characteristics and function of mixers. Drying - Definitions. Measurement of humidity. Drying theory, modes of moisture migration, heat transfer mechanisms, drying times, equilibrium humidity and material behavior. Dryer types. Lyophilization - Principles of lyophilisation and applications in pharmaceuticals. The practical exercises of the students concern the processes of grinding, mixing and drying that are taught in the class. Computer programs are used to process the results.