Course Content (Syllabus)
Week # 1 The main sources of Ancient Greek History on the subject . The archaeological data, literary and epigraphic evidence . Leading historians of the period. The first advanced civilization in Greece of the second millennium, the Mycenaean civilization of the Bronze Age , was not based on city-states , which are ruled by their citizens, but powerful kingdoms . This civilization declined the twelfth century and followed a dark period , during which the population of the mainland declined , partly due to the migration to the Aegean islands and the west coast of Asia Minor , and life returned to more primitive levels .
Week # 2 evolution towards a city . The recovery began in the tenth century and from 800 to 500 is the so-called archaic period of Greek history. The Greeks had organized now several hundred separate states , which emerged from its diverse, self-sustaining communities of the dark period . A typical rule included an urban center and the rural area in a radius of a few miles of it. The populations can be numbered thousands , and rarely tens of thousands. Initially , it seems that kings ruled these states but there was no gap between kings and aristocracy , which were members of families that were acquired at the end of the Dark Ages the larger areas of arable land. So after a while, the hereditary kingdom was succeeded by the collective governance of the aristocracy : the officials appointed for a fixed time , with a council of noble operating advisory for these officials, while in cases where there was significant solidarity probably met an assembly , composed of all adult male citizens .
Week # 3 Greece's population increased again to a point such that they can no longer states to sustain their residents only from their own sources of wealth . Some Member States have reduced their population by establishing colonies in the vast majority of copies of the metropolitan countries, in areas around the Mediterranean, where the arable land could be acquired without reactions. Some other turned to trade , exchanging the surplus of their products with other products that you need. Within states, although for a long time most people had some land and survived to some extent with the production of it, appeared some , such as the shoemakers , who were engaged in a skilled trade that was addressed to a wider circle beyond their household . Also transformed the way in which the Greeks were fighting around the first half of the 7th century , with the emergence of heavily armed infantry , the gunner , and the realization that such troops would be more effective if they could be used massively in closed form phalange . During these developments, some men and families prospered while others came in poverty . Gradually , the introduction of coins of precious metals ( now dated in the sixth century ) helped to determine the wealth with criteria other than that of arable Land ownership and its transfer to other hands . The availability of a simple alphabet (which was introduced in the eighth century ) allowed the spread of reading and writing and encouraged those who did not trust the nobles insist that the laws of their state should be available in written form.
Week # 4 By the middle of the 8th century , Sparta controlled the whole of Laconia : it was a much larger area than that controlled most of the other city-states and this control was possible through conquests which conquered a large percentage of the population in there Sparta, some as free men under the Spartan domination and other degraded to the status of slaves. The two kings ( an unusual occurrence ) , the nobles and the citizens of Sparta were united in a common cause against the tame : there was a reorganization of the citizen body , clarified the roles of kings, the Council and the Assembly for decision making. Although private ownership is maintained, granted by the state every citizen A parcel of land and slaves , who would be placed in service .
Week # 5 By the seventh and sixth century , tensions like this that led to reforms in Sparta of Lycurgus led to the seizure of power in many cities a tyrant . Usually the tyrant could authoritarian rule or through the existing political machinery of the state. Although tyranny was initially popular , over time she came to be felt as oppressive and no tyranny lasted no more than a hundred years. Noble was unable to regain their old monopoly on power. In some cases, the removal of a tyrant accompanied by a reorganization of the citizen body , which supplanted the old organization through which the nobles had exerted their influence. Usually , all who were able to equip themselves as hoplites acquired a degree of political power .
Week # 6 The world of Greek cities excluded , as we do today , children from political activity . Unlike us, women are barred , and under normal circumstances a Metic had no right (although it could be acquired through a special grace / decision on the part of society) acquisition of citizenship in the city where it was installed . The population of the city-state usually included , except citizens and self- metics , and slaves , who belonged and were in service of either the city or a private individual. as a free man could not work without loss of dignity . Without the existence of slaves and free non - citizens citizens (especially the poorest ) would not have been able to devote time to politics. The substance and the name of the policy was invented by the Greeks : As far as we know, was the first society in which the city-states were governed not according to the whim of an omnipotent leader but by citizens who " succeed one another to run and run , " in full accordance with established constitutional procedures , and where the policy was decided not by the machinations of the palace or in the bedroom but on the controversy in the Council and the Assembly.
Week # 7 in Attica Athens dominated by granting the citizenship to all free inhabitants. Most of the other city-states remained much smaller and Sparta and Athens discovered that there were limits beyond which they could expand. However, the city-states considered appropriate conclusion different kinds of diplomatic relations between them and there was the possibility of forming larger aggregates, if not oppressed fully the independence of city-states which make up these totals. Religious associations could be created , such as Amfioktionis those people interested in the sanctuary of Apollo at Delphi . In some areas, where no city -state had not been able to dominate in a similar manner to that of Sparta and Athens , neighboring towns have lost part of their independence , forming a federal state. Sparta when he was in trouble after the efforts to extend it to the north in the 6th century , began his association with other city -states through alliances , which was in effect ( if not theoretically ) the strongest partner, and end of the century gave this group its allies organizational structure we call the Peloponnesian League.
Week # 8 Sparta led the Greek resistance to Persia , and after their victory , the Greeks brought the war back to Asia Minor , led the Spartans. However, the Spartan general became obnoxious and, moreover, not all are interested in the Spartans for overseas adventures. Thus, 478/7 , Athens founded the Delian League , of city-states that wanted to continue the war and the liberation of the Greeks under Persian rule. By mid -century, the Persians had been suppressed to the point that in which Athens could and wished to repel them . Moreover, Athens had used the Alliance both to serve their own interests and for the war against the Persians. When he stopped , the Alliance maintained and are increasingly being treated as an Athenian empire . However, acquisitions in mainland Greece , which had fallen into Athenian control in the early 450 was lost in 447 /6 , in 446 /5, a treaty , which was intended to run for thirty years , recognized the division of Greek world into a Spartan army based in mainland Greece , and in an Athenian , based in the Aegean.
Week # 9 For this period, Athens had developed a conscious democratic state. Cleisthenes in 508/7 was created in Athens mechanisms which require a big turnout of citizens. The citizens began to enjoy this contribution . And, the 462/1 , Ephialtes stripped the political significance of powers of the board of Areopagiton and ferried more representative body of citizens. The Greeks of the 5th century realized the differences between democracy and oligarchy . Athens imposed or encouraged the democratic members of the Delian League. Sparta , though not a typical oligarchy (the body of citizens constituted a small percentage of the population, but there was a criterion of equality between the citizens thereof) seen as the defender of the monarchy , and encouraged the development of oligarchic constitutions between the allies.
Week # 10 After the Peace of 446/5 , Athens accepted the fact that it could be extended to mainland Greece , but did not accept limits on further expansion. So could even become so strong as to threaten the position of Sparta in Greece . In 431 Sparta responded to pressure its allies and was involved in the Peloponnesian war, to destroy the Athenian empire . Initially , Athens seemed unscathed to the actions of Sparta against . However, the 415-413 Athens kataspatalise its reserves in a foolish expedition to Sicily from 412 Sparta could count the assistance of wealthy Persians in 404 , Athens was forced to acknowledge defeat . The Athenian democracy was not entitled more than successes. However, the oligarchic regimes and 411-410 (with Spartan support) of 404-403 was not popular , and was temporarily in Athens of the fourth century , democracy was universally accepted , although not always with enthusiasm.
Week # 11 Sparta dictate peace terms without consulting its allies and its behavior has since soon made more obnoxious than what was Athens in the past. Within a few years, one regenerated Athens joined with several of his former allies of Sparta in the Corinthian War against the latter. Meanwhile, Persia redeem its support to Sparta during the Peloponnesian War : longer had full control of Asia Minor , including the Greek cities on the west coast. For some years the Sparta fought half-heartedly against Persia , hoping to secure a better deal for these cities, but the two fronts was unbearable to her and , in 387 /6, eventually gave the Greeks of Asia Minor, with Irene of Antalcidas . This was a new kind Treaty, a Joint Peace , which was attempted to settle all disputes between the Greek city-states on the basis of freedom and independence of all except those who were in the Asian mainland. However , Sparta ( as initiator of the Treaty) tried to impose treaty interpretation , which would weaken their opponents and promote their own interests . Athens secured considerable support when in 378 founded the Second Athenian Confederacy to resist the Spartan expansionism .
However , the reality belied the seeming power of Sparta. The number of citizens drastically reduced . The army , specialized in the traditional way of fighting , could not face opponents who had developed new tactics. Leuctra , in 371 , under the Theban hegemony Boeotian defeated Sparta in a decisive battle. In the years that followed, the Boeotians supported the establishment of an Arcadian Common north of Sparta , together with their Arcadian allies liberated the Messinia from Sparta. The Peloponnesian League was dissolved , as some members were forced to make peace with the Boeotians . The very Sparta could not make such a move without having recognized the independence tisMessinias . Athens, on the other hand, considered advantageous to abandon the original goal of the Second Athenian League and joined with Sparta against Boeotia.
Week # 12 The Temple of Apollo at Delphi was politically insignificant since the oracle had predicted the success of the Persian invasion of 480, however, after Leuctra , Thebes tried to renew the importance of Delphi and the Delphic Amfioktionis used to impose fines for enemies, Phocis (in which Delphi was located ) and Sparta . The Phocians reacted in 356 , capturing Delphi and Amfiktions declared Holy War against them. Philip II of Macedon , a kingdom in northern Greece proved stronger than all its predecessors, gained access to Thessaly in 346 Amfiktions helped win the war . Some Greeks were willing to work with Philip, but others , including Demosthenes in Athens , he was considered a threat to Greek freedom. In 338 at Chaeronea , Philip smashed an alliance led by Athens and Thebes whereas after winning , imposed a condition shared peace and organized the Greeks of mainland Greece (except the Spartans , continuous resistance which could be ignored ) the Corinthian League . A Joint Peace and an alliance was reassuringly familiar to Greeks, but provided the framework within which the Greeks were vassals of Philip : for large city-states , which were common to lead and not follow , it really was a significant loss of freedom. Since the beginning of the 4th century , had often been suggested that the best time of the Greeks was when they were united against Persia and that it should be re- aligned against Persia . The last was the next natural obstacle to Macedonia which had conquered Greece : Philip was preparing to lead the Macedonians and Greeks against Persia when he was murdered in 336 . His son, Alexander the Great invaded in 334 and conquered the Persian Empire. Consequently , the Greek culture and the Greek language were exported to the Middle East and Greek city-states , with Greek institutions and Greeks and Macedonians residents were established in many places . Alexander died in 323 , without someone capable successor in place (by name, succeeded by his mentally retarded brother and a few months old son ) . The most ambitious of his generals vied for power and empire dissolved .
Week # 13 The period from the death of Alexander to the Roman conquest ( of Greece ) is known as the Hellenistic period . Three large kingdoms arose those Antigonid in Macedonia , the Ptolemies in Egypt and the Seleucids in Syria. There were also smaller kingdoms in Asia Minor. In the shadow of these warring kingdoms , the Greek cities were trying to reclaim the greatest possible degree of independence. In many ways , life continued as before. The kings demanded flattery and, in some cases, obedience, however, considered politically correct to promise to respect the freedom of the Greek cities.