Upon successful completion of this course the student will be able to:
1. Understand the structure and function of the nervous and muscular system
2. Identify central and peripheral adaptations after exercise intervention (training session, long-term adaptations, warm-up, etc)
3. Understand of the specificities of different ages (childhood, elderly)
4. Use the methods to assess the function of the neuromuscular system
5. Design appropriate protocols and to apply these methods, for example recording, process and presents electromyographic data
6. Present methods and research findings in poster-teaser 2 minute form
Course Content (Syllabus)
1. Principles of muscle mechanics
Basic knowledge of neuroanatomy and muscle mechanics.
Contents: Motor unit structure, characteristics, recruiting order (Henneman principle). Types of muscular action. Force - Velocity and force - length relationship of the skeletal muscle.
2. Neuromechanical basis of kinesiology
The role of motor neurons and sensory receptors.
Contents: The alpha motor neurons. The muscle spindle, Golgi tendon organs and the other sensory receptors.
3. Mechanism of musclular contraction
Analysis of the chemical process of Stimulus and the mechanical effect of stimulation.
Contents: The role of calcium. The sliding of myofilaments and the excitability of the cell membrane,. The neuromuscular junction.
4. Muscle Activation - Electromyography
Description of the muscular activation and the factors affecting it.
Contents: Recordings by surface or intramuscular electrodes. Signal processing. EMG to muscular tension, neuromuscular efficiency.
5. Muscle modeling and elastic energy
Familiarisation with muscle modeling
Contents: The model of three components. Contractile component, elastic component in series, parallel elastic component. Storage and re-utilisation of the elastic energy.
6. Muscle stiffness, stretching and force variability
Quantifying stifness, stretching effects and stability training
Contents: Increasing the stiffnes of musculotendinous complex after eccentric exercise. The effects of passive stretching. Isometric stability, dynamic accuracy and relevance of the sports movement.
7. Muscle fiber architecture
Analysis of mechanical performance with respect to the pennation angle
Contents: Pennation angle of fast and slow muscle fibers. Ultrasound to identifying the pennation angle. The effects of training.
8. Co-activation of the antagonists and tension-regulating mechanism
Understanding the function of motor neurons into agonist and antagonist muscles during maximal and submaximal contraction
Contents: The role of the Golgi tendon organs and muscle spindle in the control of muscle integrity and protection of the joint.
9. Spinal reflexes
Learning the afferent pathways of the reflexes and the effects on muscle activation
Contents: H-reflex and M-wave. Reflexes of trained and untrained muscles. The feedback from kinesthetic receptors.
Analysis of central and peripheral fatigue - evaluation indicators
Contents: Changes in EMG during fatigue. Neuromuscular transmitters. The concept of over-fatigue.
11. Static and dynamic balance
Posture and gait analysis. Parameters influencing the balance.
Contents: Upright posture. Balance strategies. Rate of force development. Κinaesthesia.
12. Aging and neuromuscular adaptations of training to the elderly.
Training effects in the elderly
Contents: Strength training and neural adaptations. Force variability and tremor. Death of motor units and its impact on motion variability.
13. Neuromuscular electrostimulation
Purpose: Involuntary muscle function and contraction with electrical stimulators.
Contents: The reversal of the principle of recruitment of motor units. Monoarticular isometric strength training with neuromuscular electrostimulation.
Neuromechanics, motor unit, force-velocity, force-length, muscle spindle, Golgi, EMG, elastic energy, stiffness, force variability, pennation angle, coactivation, spinal reflexes, fatigue, aging, balance, nmes
Additional bibliography for study
1. Principles of neural sciences, KANDEL ER, SCHWARTZ JH, JESSELL TM (μετάφραση Νευροεπιστήμη και συμπεριφορά, 2008), Εκδόσεις Πανεπιστήμιο Κρήτης.
2. Η Νευρομηχανικής της ανθρώπινης κίνησης, Roger M Enoka, μετάφραση - επιστημονική επιμέλεια: Αγγελούσης, Αμοιρίδης, Μπογδάνης, Τσιόκανος, Χατζητάκη
3. Brunnstrom's κλινική κινησιολογία, L. SMITH, E. W. LEHMKUHL
4. Μύες, νεύρα και κίνηση, Β. TYLDESLEY
-Συναφή επιστημονικά περιοδικά:
1. Journal of Applied Physiology
2. European Journal of Applied Physiology
3. Journal of Neurophysiology
4. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
5. Journal of Biomechanics.