- To learn the extent of the international and European environmental governance which, in the frame of a de facto global governance, affects the extent and intensity of the interventionist role of states in environmental matters
- To become familiar with modern views on sound environmental governance which recognise to individuals the right to demand ecologically balanced living conditions
- To learn the potential of legal protection of the citizens in the frames of both the European Union law and Civil Law.
- To learn the responsibility issues that emerge in relation to the environmental protection and, in particular, the responsibility of public authorities and that of individuals
Course Content (Syllabus)
The course consists of three units. The first one refers to the international and European dimension of environmental governance and includes the following: Introduction to and evolution of the International Environmental Law. Soft Law: from Stockholm to Rio +20. Hard Law: the main international treaties on the protection of the environment (Biodiversity/ Ozone/ Climate change/ Antarctica), the factors that influence International Environmental Diplomacy, the defense of the global commons, as well as the major players of international environmental governance: states – international organisations – non-state actors. On the European Union level, the focus is on the following: the distribution of the relevant responsibility between the Union and the member states, both within the Union and on an international level, the objectives and principles of EU environmental policy, the direct and indirect imposition of EU environmental regulations, as well as the collision between the protection of the environment as a goal of the Union and its economic aspirations. As regards to the comparative dimension, the focus is on the main differences between the American system and the Union's model of environmental governance. The second unit of the course entitled “the citizen as a subject of environmental protection” refers to modern socioeconomic views as well as to the Union's efforts towards sound environmental governance, which recognise to the subjects of law the right to claim ecologically balanced and viable living conditions and their participation in the decision-making process. In this frame, there is also discussion on the protection of citizens and, indirectly, of the environment through civil law. The third unit refers to issues of responsibility (international and non-contractual) both of the Union and the member states. There is also focus on matters of responsibility of individuals (environmental responsibility), on issues regarding the insurance against environmental risk, as well as on issues of penal responsibility.