The students are introduced in the concepts of mechanical waves, fluid mechanics and thermodynamics. More specifically, in the case of mechanical waves they will be familiarized with the propagation of transverse waves along an elastic string and longitudinal sound waves in fluids. They will deal with examples on the application of the superposition principle and the effect of the medium properties on the wave propagation velocity. The students will be also familiarized with the properties of fluids (pressure, density, buoyance) as well as with the fundamental principles that govern their behaviour and determine their practical applications. Except from the physical phenomena that dominate the behaviour of fluids under equilibrium conditions, the students will be introduced to the forces of cohesion and adhesion in fluid and with the laws which describe their flow.
Finally, the students are introduced to the meanings and the laws of thermodynamics through the study of the perfect gas laws and the thermal engines. They learn the equilibrium conditions and are introduced to the modeling of physical problems. They learn also elements of the kinetic theory of gases.
Course Content (Syllabus)
Waves in elastic media: basic concepts, derivation of the wave equation, harmonic waves. Characteristics of the mechanical waves, wave energy. Exercises
Propagation of mechanical waves: Superposition of waves, group and phase velocities, standing waves and normal modes, beats. Exercises.
Sound waves: Production of sound waves, applications. Exercises.
Fluids (gasses and liquids). Pressure. Density. Fluids in equilibrium. Hydrostatics. Buoyancy. Pascal and Archimedes Principles. Exercises.
Surface tension. Adhesion forces. Capillary action. Fluid flow. Laminar flow. Law of continuity. Law of Bernoulli. Turbulent flow. Viscosity. Exercises.
Deformation of solids and moduli (in brief). Exercises.
Heat and Thermodynamics :
Thermodynamics of perfect gas: System, surroundings, thermodynamic variables, equilibrium, processes. Temperature and the zeroth law, temperature scales, thermometric properties. Heat and the first law, heat capacities, heat measurement and tranfer. Perfect gas laws and processes. Kinetic theory of gases. Molecular velocities distribution. Real gas. Thermal engines. Second law, Carnot cycle, entropy, Clausius inequality. Equilibrium. Problems for all the issues.