Learning Outcomes
In brief, familiarization with the optical phenomena and the operation of optical systems within the ray theory regime.
More specifically:
Understanding of the propagation of light and the approximations introduced by the optical frequencies in the methods used to calculate the propagation according to the ray theory (geometrical optics).
The characteristics, properties, model description and conditions of the image formation in optical systems in the context of the above approximations, both in the ideal case (Gaussian optics) and with the introduction of restrictions existing in real optical systems (stops, aberrations).
The examination of the operating principles and applications of optical systems (eye, microscope
, telescope, camera, gradient index systems).
The examination of the mechanisms that affect the polarization of light, the types and properties of polarizing elements constructed by utilizing these properties and the mathematical treatment of the polarization.
Course Content (Syllabus)
Geometrical Optics: Geometrical Optics approximation. Eikonal Equation and Ray Equation. Laws of Geometrical Optics. Huygens principle. Fermat's principle. Optical path length.
Gaussian Optics: Ray tracing. Optical system. Transition matrix. Condition for image formation. Thin lens. Thick lens. Apertures & stops. Depth of focus and depth of field.
Aberrations: Types of aberrations. Wave-front aberrations and ray aberrations. Monochromatic aberrations: spherical, coma, astigmatism, field curvature. Chromatic aberration.
Light interference: Two-wave interference. The interference term. Coherence. Interference fringes. Fringes classification. Point source interference. Young’s experiment. Basic interferometers. Dielectric slab. Multi-beam interference.
Interferometry: Operation principles for interferometers. Michelson, Mach-Zehnder and Fabry-Perot interferometers. Free Spectral Range and resolution.
Scalar Theory of Diffraction: Propagation of a light disturbance in free-space. Kirchhoff boundary conditions. Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction.
Fourier Optics: Propagation of light disturbance in the spatial-frequency domain. Angular spectrum. Propagation as a frequency filter. Transmittance function.
Principles of Optical Processing: Basic optical phenomena (propagation, reflection, refraction, thin lens). Propagation through a lens. Image formation. Optical system with coherent and incoherent light.
Holography: Hologram construction. Reconstruction and properties of reconstructed waves. Hologram types. Applications of Holography.
Additional bibliography for study
Optics: International Edition, 4ed. - Hecht, Eugene - Addison-Wesley [Pearson], 2003, USA.
Optics, 2ed. - Klein, Miles V.; Furtak, Thomas E. - Wiley, 1986, USA.
Introduction to Optics: International Edition, 3ed. - Pedrotti, Frank L.; Pedrotti, Leno M.; Pedrotti, Leno S. - Addison-Wesley [Pearson], 2007, USA.
Fundamentals of Optics, 4ed - Jenkins, Francis A; White, Harvey E. - McGraw-Hill, 2001, USA.
Schaum's Outline of Optics, 1ed. - Hecht, Eugene - McGraw-Hill, 1976, USA.