Course Content (Syllabus)
Introduction, subjects related to topography, historical background, geodetic systems, theory of errors in measurements. Measurement units, topographical instruments used, methods and calculations for specification of horizontal point location (N, E), marking, labeling, alignment. Point location assurance on sites, angle units, set out instruments for fixed size angles, methods and instruments for site measurements, including distances, calculations of horizontal coordinates, methods to resolve discrepancies on accuracy, detailed points, polygonometry, open and closed route surveying, densification of fixed points, intersection and resection measurements etc. Related topographical instruments, methods and units used for altitude determination, marking, labeling, methods and instruments for height measurements calculations, Tree height measurements by portable instruments. Tachymetry measurements and related electronic instruments and methods, semi-electronic instruments, coordinate systems, decisions for the use of the most appropriate instrument. Area determination, land area calculation methods, plan drawing specifications, CAD designing, digital terrain model, setting out using inclination, angles, arcs and sharp turns related to forest road design, longitudinal and cross sections for earth volume calculations. Topographic mechanical and digital design, digital soil model. Planning engravings, engraving: (a) straight with inclination, b) angle, (c) circle arc, d) maneuver, e) widening, (f) along the route; and g) by width of road incisions. Land consolidation methods. Plan drawing and area calculation. Inclinometers. Drawing of a scale or topographic diagram and surface calculation. About slope calculation. Distances measurements by electromagnetic method. Practicing in the use of topographic instruments such as: total station, GPS, drone and how the field measurements are corrected in office work and then created with the help of relevant CAD programs or GIS dimensional or three -dimensional topographic diagrams.