Course Content (Syllabus)
DNA structure, organization and its properties.
The organization of genes and the genome. The differences of prokaryotic and eukaryotic genes and genomes. The genetic material in higher eukaryotes and its replication.
Flow of genetic information and regulation of gene expression.
Flow of information from DNA to proteins. Transcription and the regulating mechanisms of gene expression. Translation and synthesis of proteins.
Manipulation of genetic material in the level of few genes.
Recombinant DNA and genetic engineering. In vitro manipulation of genetic material. Principles and methods of plant genetic modification. Improving plant varieties by the use of genetic engineering. The restrains and the prospects of biotechnology in agriculture.
From individual genes to the genome.
Structure and organization of the genome. Genome sequencing projects and the sequenced genomes. Genetic and physical mapping. Molecular markers and genome mapping.
From DNA sequence to genome function. Transcriptome. Microarrays. Proteome. Proteomics, metabolomics and cross-correlation of data. From the genome to individual genes. Functional genomics and role in plant breeding.
Regulation at the whole genome level.
Gene expression at the genome level. Regulating networks. Epigenetic phenomena. Epigenome: the epigenetic mechanisms and roles in the organisation, expression, regulation, evolution of genomes and in developmental genetics of organisms.
Analysis and comparison of genomes
Comparative genomics, synteny and model plants.
New genomics applications in plant breeding
Molecular breeding. Molecular markers and their application in the estimation of genetic variation and the selection of desirable genotypes. Bioinformatics: tools and applications.