Course Content (Syllabus)
According to "WORLD ORGANISATION FOR ANIMAL HEALTH- Veterinary Education Core Curriculum. OIE Guidelines (Sept 2013)"-(http://www.oie.int/Veterinary_Education_Core_Curriculum.pdf) & to "OIE recommendations on the Competencies of graduating veterinarians (‘Day 1 graduates’) to assure National Veterinary Services of quality" (http://www.oie.int/fileadmin/Home/eng/Support_to_OIE_Members/Vet_Edu_AHG/DAY_1/DAYONE-B-ang-vC.pdf) course content should be augmented with appropriate laboratory or other hands-on experience and provide the veterinary student with a broad understanding of basic microbiological principles (e.g., physical and chemical characteristics of bacteria, fungi, viruses, prions; replication and transmission processes; classification schemes; isolation and identification), and the prognostic and diagnostic value of available laboratory tests. Focus should be on general basic principles, with more advanced focus on pathogens impacting animal and public health, reportable disease agents, and agents of particular significance to Greece.
Also the study of the structure and function of the immune system; innate and acquired immunity; mechanisms that allow bodily distinction of self from non-self; and the basics of vaccinology (i.e., vaccine development and vaccination theory and practice). Course content should provide the veterinary student with a broad understanding of fundamental immunological concepts and mechanisms and the ability to apply these to appropriate settings (e.g., control and prevention of infectious diseases; use of immunotherapies; use and interpretation of immunologic-based diagnostic tests). Instruction can be focused on animal species of particular relevance to Greece, and comparative features among species should be highlighted.
1st Introduction to Microbiology: Generally about microorganisms, Historical Review, The 'offices of Koch ». Evolutionary relationships & Diversity of microorganisms: Features of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms. Evolutionary relationships, evolutionary "indicators" Diversity of prokaryotic and eukaryotic [WS]
2 to 4 Morphology and Layout bacteria. Bacterial cell Structure: Cell wall, plasma membrane, cytoplasm, sheath, eyelashes, whiskers, seeds. Polymorphism-Degenerative forms of bacteria: protoplasts, spheroplasts, L-forms [GF]
Fifth Metabolism bacteria. Nutrition bacteria: Nutritional categories, nutritional and biological requirements, nutrient transport. Categories bacteria depending on their needs O2 and temperature of development. Development of bacteria. Nutritional interactions [OP]
6 to 7 genetics of bacteria: Structure and function of bacterial genome. Evolution and adaptation of bacteria. Genetic recombination (homologous, special position). Genetically soicheia (transposable elements, plasmids). Islets pathogenic. Genetic transfer mechanisms (transformation, transduction, conjugation). Speciation [Ch.D.]
8th -9H Factors pathogenic bacteria: Toxins & enzymes. Antimicrobial agents: mechanisms of action of antimicrobials, antivioantochi. Sterilization, disinfection, antisepsis. Normal flora [OP]
10 to 11 Systematic of bacteria: Classification of bacteria based on the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. Genus, species, subspecies, serotype / biotype strain bacteria. Identification of bacteria. Nomenclature bacteria. Classification of bacteria in Bergey [WS]
1 to 3 Generally about fungi: Morphology, Development-Growing fungi Persistence-Diaspora Play (Rude & Native) Sort fungi. Mycotoxins [Ch.D., WS]
EXERCISES VAKTIRIOLOGIAS (6 x 3 hours) [OP, WS, GF ]
First x 3 Safety Microbiology Laboratory (safe handling in the laboratory, collective and individual protection measures). Microscopy bacteria (microscopy techniques, characterization of bacteria based on the shape and layout). Friday coatings (fresh & fixed coatings, types of stains).
Second x 3 Advanced staining bacteria (Gram staining and staining Ziehl-Nielsen). Special stains: Giemsa Staining
3rd x 3 Growing bacteria. Media for the growth of bacteria (species broth). Inoculation bacteria on substrates. Incubation under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Bacterial culture characteristics. Isolation of bacteria. Maintenance and crop destruction.
4th x 3 Biochemical identification of bacteria based on special substrates (Biochemical series) and API.
5th x 3 Detection and identification of bacteria by standard serological methods (agglutination, complement fixation). Detection and identification of bacteria by molecular methods (PCR, Sequencing, RFLP).
Sixth x 3 bacterial sensitivity test to antibacterial agents (antibiogram).
1 to 2 Introduction to Virology. Nature and origin, shape and size of viruses. Architectural structure of the viral particle. Genome, capsid, envelope or folder. Functional properties of the nucleic acid and the viral proteins [C.I.]
3rd -4 Chemical composition and classification of viruses. Chemical composition of viruses. Influence of physicochemical factors on viruses. Classification and nomenclature of viruses. Multiplication or antityposi. Entry of virus into host cells. Transcription and genome replication, production of structural proteins, formation and maturation of viral particles [Ch.D.]
5 to 6 Effects of viral propagation in the host cells. Cytopathic effect, persistent infection, transformation-oncogenesis. Effect of the host cells in the multiplication of viruses. Homologous interference-defective viral particles. Heterologous interference-antiviral activity of interferons [SK]
7 to 8 Genetic antiviral. Genetic diversity, fitness, evolution, speciation and phylogenetic relationships of viruses. Emerging viruses. Mechanisms emergence of new viruses [Ch.D.]
1 to 2 Introduction to Immunology. Types of immunity. Fundamentals each acquired immune response. Operations acquired immune summary mechanism. Types of acquired immune responses. Antigens. Definition. The characteristics of the antigens. Epitopes and paratope. The cross-reacting antigens. Haptens and carriers. Clinical significance of hapten. Conditions for inducing immune response. Antibodies. Definition. The characteristics of the antibodies. Structure and antigenicity of the antibodies. The biological properties of the antibodies. The variety of antibodies. Classes and subclasses of immunoglobulins. Incomplete or blocking antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies (production and applications). Antigen-antibody binding [VS]
3 to 4 The immune system. Definition. Cells of the immune system. Lymphocytes - types of lymphocytes. Antigen presenting cells - types of antigen presenting cells and antigen presentation to B and T lymphocytes. Active cells. Tissues of the immune system. Primary and secondary lymphoid organs. Activation, differentiation and activity of T lymphocytes - cellular immunity. Activation and differentiation of B lymphocytes - humoral immunity. Primary and secondary immune response of B lymphocytes. Factors influencing the production of antibodies. Primary and secondary immune response of T lymphocytes. [WS]
5 to 7 regulators of immune responses proteins cytokines, interleukins, interferons, lymphokines, Monokines. Systems histocompatibility organism. Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC). Genes and the MHC antigens, histocompatibility antigens structure. Role of MHC in regulating the immune response and in transplantation. Technical preventing transplant rejection. Histocompatibility antigens of blood groups. Antigens of blood groups. Antibodies against blood group antigens. Blood transfusion and transfusion syndrome. Blood Groups of pets. Hemolytic disease of the newborn (isoerythrolysi, erythroblastosis). The complement system. Factors and pathways of complement activation. Classical activation pathway C3, alternative activation pathway of C3, C3 activation of the lectin. Biological activity of activated complement deficiency in supplement [OP]
8th -9 Allergies and other similar reactions. Autoreactive immune etiology. Innate and acquired immunity (resistance): Role of antibodies. Cellular cytotoxicity Phagocytosis: Neutralization microbial toxins. Installation passive immunity. [SK]
10th -12H immunity against infectious agents. Defence mechanisms of the organism. Immune defense mechanisms. Immunity against bacteria, viruses, fungi Immunology playback. Immunity to the fetus and newborn interventions on the immune system. Methods of stimulation and suppression of the immune system [SK]
EXERCISES-BIOLOGY IMMUNOLOGY (6 x 3 hours) [SK, C.I.]
Isolation and identification of viruses in cell cultures, embryonated eggs, and animals. Preparation and Use of cell cultures, embryonated eggs and animals in Virology.
Detection and titration of virus by standard methods (hemagglutination, hemoperfusion, method of determining the mean infectious dose of virus, plaque counting method of creating the virus).
Detection and identification of viruses using molecular methods (polymerase chain reaction (PCR), RT-PCR, real-time PCR, molecular hybridization, microarrays DNA, LAMP, NASBA).
Detection and titration of antibodies and viruses by serological methods (serum neutralization, hemagglutination inhibition, izimatinantidrasi).
Detection and titration of antibodies and viruses by serological methods (ELISA-, immunofluorescence, immunoperoxidase, rapid immunochromatographic methods, Western blotting).
Immunoprophylaxis against infectious agents. Passive immunization. Active immunization