Course Content (Syllabus)
- Defects: Basic crystallography. Types of defects. Dynamic and static structural defects. Line defects – dislocations. Topological characterization of dislocations – Burgers vector – Volterra cuts. Edge, screw and mixed dislocations. Dislocations in fcc, bcc, and hcp structures. Dislocation motion (glide, climb). Elastic properties and energy of dislocations. Forces on and between dislocations. Dislocation multiplication mechanisms. Extended defects, stacking faults, twins, interfaces, grain boundaries (low and high angle).
- Nucleation and Growth: Theory of homo and heterogeneous nucleation. Stability of nuclei. Nucleation rate. Growth modes of bulk and thin film crystalline materials. Diffusion transformations in solids. Nuclei growth and interphase migration. Growth controlling mechanisms. Second-phase shape: interfacial energy and misfit strain. Nucleation at solid/vapour and solid/liquid interphases. Growth from the melt. Dendritic growth
- Criteria for the selection of growth techniques and environmental issues. Bulk material growth from the melt (Chochralski, Bridgman). Thermodynamics of bulk growth. Growth rate, impurity incorporation and distribution inhomogeneities. Zone methods and impurity redistribution. Analysis of bulk-growth related problems. Growth of thin films. Physical vapor and chemical vapor deposition (PVD and CVD respectively).CVD: growth mechanisms, growth rate control, effect of reactor geometry, CVD modifications. Plasma technology and its applications in materials growth: PECVD, sputter deposition, plasma spray, plasma ashing/etching/stripping. Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE): growth mechanism, vacuum requirements, impurity control, modifications of MBE. Effects of mismatch on the crystalline quality of the epi-layer. In-situ characterization methods (AES, XPS, LEED, RHEED).
- Basic thermodynamics of phase diagrams. Thermodynamic equilibrium. Gibbs free energy of single component systems and binary solutions. Ideal, regular and real solid solutions. Construction of binary phase diagrams from Gibbs free energy curves. Simple phase and partial miscibility systems. The lever rule. Construction of binary phase diagrams from cooling curves. Ternary systems and the Gibbs triangle. Applications using the “MATTER” software package