Learning Outcomes
• Understanding the basic concepts of crystallography.
• Identification of the crystal systems.
• Learning how to find crystal parameters.
• Understanding the analytical methods used for the identification of mineral structure.
• Understanding the basic concepts of mineral chemistry and systematic mineralogy.
• Learning how to identify minerals with the use of their physical properties.
• Understanding the arrangement and bonding of atoms in crystalline solids.
• Solving exercises that involve mineral chemistry.
Course Content (Syllabus)
1) INTRODUCTION: Objective of Crystallography. Definition of a crystal. Anisotropic-Isotropic-Homogeneous bodies. Definition of crystal zone. Law of Constancy of Interfacial Angles.
2) TRANSFORMATIONS IN SPACE – CRYSTAL SYMMETRY: Simple symmetry operations. Symmetry axes, planes and centers.
3) CRYSTAL CLASSES: Simple and crystals. Natural and apparent symmetry. Point symmetry. Geometrical laws applied to the crystals of the 32 crystal classes. Haüy’s law or law of rational indices.
4) PLANE INDICES: Identifying axial intercepts and plane indices.
5) CRYSTAL SYSTEMS: Crystallographic axes. Crystals of the 7 crystal systems. Inversion axes and inversion planes.
6) CRYSTAL INTERGROWTH – TWINNING: Parallel intergrowth. Twinning and Polysynthetic twinning. Pseudosymmetry. Epitaxy and topotaxy.
7) CRYSTAL LATTICE – ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND ARRANGEMENT: Lattice points, lattice planes, unit cell. Bravais lattices. Relationship between lattice and regular intergrowth. Determination of crystal structure by X-ray methods.
8) HISTORICAL BACKGROUND – MINERAL DEFINITION: Objective of Mineralogy. Association with other scientific fields. Historical background. Mineral definition.
9) SUBSTITUTION – SOLID SOLUTIONS – EXSOLUTION: Atomic substitutions. Definition of Solid Solution. Exsolution phenomena.
10) ISOMORPHISM – POLYMORPHISM – POLYTYPISM: Definition and examples of Isomorphism, Polymorphism, Polytypism. Mechanisms of Polymorphism.
11) MAGNETIC – ELECTRIC PROPERTIES: Piezoelectricity. Pyroelectricity. Radioactivity.
12) BASIC CONCEPTS OF PETROLOGY: Fundamentals of Petrography. Igneous rocks. Sedimentary rocks. Metamorphic rocks.
13) MINERAL CLASSIFICATION AND CHEMICAL FORMULA: Native elements. Sulfides. Oxides – Hydroxides. Halides – Sulfates. Carbonates. Silicates.
Keywords
Crystal, mineral, rock, crystal system, crystal lattice, twinning
Course Bibliography (Eudoxus)
1. “ΟΡΥΚΤΟΛΟΓΙΑ – ΠΕΤΡΟΛΟΓΙΑ” ΘΕΟΔΩΡΙΚΑΣ ΣΤΕΡΓΙΟΣ Σ., Εκδόσεις: Γραφικές Τέχνες «ΜΕΛΙΣΣΑ», 2013.
2. "ΟΡΥΚΤΟΔΙΑΓΝΩΣΤΙΚΗ", Η.ΣΑΠΟΥΝΤΖΗΣκαι Γ.ΧΡΙΣΤΟΦΙΔΗΣ, ΕΚΔΟΣΕΙΣ UNIVERSITYSTUDIOPRESS, ΘΕΣΣΑΛΟΝΙΚΗ.