After completing this course, students will be able to:
• Connect the macroscopic observation with the corresponding processes at the molecular level.
• Operate simple devices and laboratory instruments.
• Perform simple experiments and present the results in a protocol work.
Course Content (Syllabus)
Matter and energy, mass and weight. Units
, measurement and equations. Distinguish elements, compounds, mixtures. Atomic and molecular mass. Calculate a percentage composition from formula. Empirical and molecular formulae. Balance chemical equations. Mole, molarity, normality, Avogadro's number. Characteristic properties of solids, liquids and gases. Endothermic and exothermic reactions. Structure of the nuclear atom and isotopes. Atomic structure, electronic shells and subshells, and orbitals. Energy level diagram for the hydrogen atom, and spectrum of atomic hydrogen. Quantum numbers for the hydrogen atom, and for other elements. Interpret orbitals in terms of probability s, p, and d electrons. Aufbau principle, Pauli principle and Hund's rules to build up electron configurations of the elements of the Periodic Table. Periodicity from configuration across and down the Table, and explain trends in radii, ionisation enthalpies, electron affinities and electronegativities. IUPAC Nomenclature of Inorganic Compounds. Classification of Inorganic Compounds. Ionic and covalent bonding. Metallic bonding and relate to metallic properties. Hybridisation of an atom in a given molecule. Lewis structures for simple molecules. Distinguish sigma and pi bonds. Orbital overlap of s, p, and d electrons, bond order. Molecular orbital energy-level diagram. Non-bonding and antibonding orbitals from s, p, and d combinations. Theories of resonance and p-orbital overlap. Dipoles in polar molecules. Covalent or ionic bonds. Occurrence of intermolecular interactions (van der Waals forces, and hydrogen-bonding). Inter- and intra-molecular hydrogen bonding and van der Waals (London) forces in a molecule. State the Bronsted and Lewis acid-base theory and its applications to salt hydrolysis, buffers and solubility. The theory of redox reactions.
Safety rules in Chemical laboratories. Reagent’s hazards. Mass and volume measurement. Expression of solution concentration. Preparation of solutions with specific concentration. Simple methods for separation of mixtures. Decantation, filtration, centrification. Study of homogeneous and heterogeneous equilibrium and effect of mass and temperature on the equilibrium. Equilibriums in aqueous solutions of electrolytes. The meaning of pH and its measurement using indicators and pH meters (Principle of pH meter operation). Estimation of the pK of a weak electrolyte. Preparation and study of the buffering ability of buffers. Estimation of the hydrolysis constant of salts in aqueous solutions. Principles and techniques of volumetric analysis. Preparation of standard solutions. Acidimetry – alkalimetry – complexometry – redox volumetric analysis. Redox reactions. Study of the reactivity series of metals and non-metals. Oxidative properties of typical oxidants in aqueous media. Voltaic cells, electrolysis, determination and application of electrolysis laws. Principles of spectroscopy. Application of electronic spectroscopy in the identification and study of inorganic compounds. Homeworks.
Atomic structure, Molecules, Chemical bond, Nomenclature, Chemical equilibrium, Thermochemistry, Acids-bases, Red-ox
Course Bibliography (Eudoxus)
α. BROWN, LeMAY, BURSTEN, MURPHY, WOODWARD, STOLTZFUS, «Χημεία», 13η Έκδοση (Μετάφραση Π. Ακρίβος) ΕΚΔΟΣΕΙΣ ΤΖΙΟΛΑ Θεσσαλονίκη 2016, ISBN 978-960-418-515-3
β. C.E. Housecroft, A.G. Sharpe, «Ανόργανη Χημεία (Μετάφραση Ν. Χατζηλιάδης, Θ. Καμπανός, Α. Κεραμιδάς, Σ. Περλεπές), Αθήνα 2014, ISBN: 978-960-93-6350-1