Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
The aim of those lectures is to promote knowledge in oral and maxillofacial diseases
To help the student in the diagnostic procedures of trauma,infections,dysplasias and neoplasias of the mouth and maxillofacial region
In the topic of infections a precise description of the anatomical spaces apt to develop an odontogenic infection, is given along with the therapeutic protocols,
pharmaceutical and surgical.A special lecture is dedicated to osteomyelitis of the jaws,with an emphasis in osteonecrosis due to the use of bisphosphonates.
In the topic of TMD students are focusing in the anatomy of the masticatory system,learning how to examine the masseterial muscles and how to diagnose and differentiate the internal derangement of the temporomandibular joint according to the meniscus position.Osteoarthritis and reumatoid arthritis is among the important diseases examined in detail.All the therapeutic protocols are presented and discussed in detail.
In the diseases of paranasal sinuses the odontogenic infection of the maxillary sinus is the main entity of interest.Students learn the physiology of the antrum and the mechanisms of infection thru the nose or the sinus floor.The surgical approaches of the antrum and the drugs adminestered in such cases are discussed.
Pain and neoplasias are special lectures in this semester.Students are learning to discriminate trigeminal pain from other pain sources in the area of the face and jaws.In neoplasias a special effort is given for the ability of the student to identify malignant lesions among others.
In every topic radiographic examination of oral and maxillofacial patients is discussed with the students.Advantages and disadvantages of all methods are presented.
Course Content (Syllabus)
1. Jaw manifestations of systemic diseases: metabolic diseases, hormonal disorders.
In the topic of jaw manifestations of systemic diseases the etiology, symptoms and treatment of osteomalacia, rickets and osteoporosis are presented along with characteristic manifestations of the jaws in parathyroidism. They are also analyzed bone malformations such as osteogenesis imperfect, osteopetrosis, cleidocranialdysostosis, achondroplasia, fibrous dysplasia, cherubism, Gardner’s syndrome and Paget’s disease. Hematologic disorders such as thalassemia, sickle cell anemia and histiocytosis are also presented.
2. Salivary gland diseases: infections, tumors, treatment Salivary gland diseases: tumors, surgical treatment
The aim of those lectures is to promote the knowledge of anatomy of normal salivary glands with special attention to infectious diseases and the benign tumors arising from major and minor salivary glands. Malignant tumors arising from major and minor salivary glands are also presented with special focus on the surgical treatment of these tumors. The anatomy of the facial nerve and its identification during parotid surgery is discussed.
3. Facial impalancies: facial and jaw development, malformations.
In this lesson the normal development of the face and jaws is presented, with descriprion of the conditions leading to facial imbalance is attempted. The clinical description of these deformities is also attempted.
4. Orthognathic surgery: classification, clinical signs.
In this topic the developmental deformities of the jaws is given along with their classification. Most of these deformities are related with malocclusion of the teeth and facial disfigurement. Even though some of them are congenital in origin, others may result from different causes such as trauma or infection. This chapter focuses on the surgical intervention and orthodontic principles of orthognathic surgery
5. Distraction osteogenesis: principles, possibilities.
In the chapter of Distraction osteogenesis the operation applied for correction of hypoplastic disorders of the facial skeleton including cases with severe micrognathia of the mandible and midface hypoplasia in craniofacial syndromes is presented.
This operation however can be helpful for correction of mandibular defects after ablative surgery for tumor extirpation or for augmentation of mandibular deficiencies.
6. Preprosthetic surgery: atrophy of the jaw, osteoporosis, principals of preprosthetic surgery, possibilities, maxillofacial prosthetics.
In the chapter of preprosthetic surgery the consequencies to the mandibular or the maxilla after tooth extraction and the related events in osteoporosis are taught. The atrophic alveolar ridge can interfere with the retention of the dentures or can be related to problems of the soft tissue or the underlying bone of the maxilla or the mandible.
The corrective surgical procedures are discussed in this lesson. Soft tissue preparation of the edentulous ridge to augment the available bone for denture support along with hard tissue deformities as mandibular tori, maxillary torus , sharp ridge removal and combined hard and soft operations are presented.
In the same chapter we discuss about the evolution in thepreprosthetic surgery in conjunction with the new trends in implantogy and finally we interpret the possibilities of maxillary defects correction, usually in oncologic patients with the techniques of maxillofacial prosthetics.
7. Cleft lip and palate:classification, clinical signs,surgical correction, follow up
The embryology of oral cavity and the mechanism of cleft lip and palate progressive formation is presented. Hereditary and environmental factors may have a critical role for the development of these disorders. The classification and the clinical signs are discussed in details along with the surgical techniques for correction of cleft lip and palate.
In this lesson the modifications in dental treatment and the support for bedridden patient are presented. Caring for a bedridden person requires special set of skills. Even though the patient may have a disability he has the right to be treated humanely. We focus on the special problems to be solved in order the bedridden patient to have the appropriate dental care.
ELECTIVE LESSON IN MEDICINE H SEMESTER
The aim of this lesson is the promote of knowledge in the medicine students in etiology and incidence of facial fractures. The classification, clinical signs along with surgical treatment of facial fractures are also presented.