Physiology II

Course Information
TitleΦΥΣΙΟΛΟΓΙΑ ΙΙ / Physiology II
FacultyHealth Sciences
Cycle / Level1st / Undergraduate
Teaching PeriodSpring
Course ID200000677

Programme of Study: PPS Tmīmatos Ktīniatrikīs (2020-2021)

Registered students: 0
OrientationAttendance TypeSemesterYearECTS
KORMOSPrerequisite Undergraduate217

Class Information
Academic Year2018 – 2019
Class PeriodSpring
Faculty Instructors
Weekly Hours70
Class ID
Course Type 2016-2020
  • Scientific Area
Course Type 2011-2015
Specific Foundation / Core
Mode of Delivery
  • Face to face
Digital Course Content
The course is also offered to exchange programme students.
Learning Outcomes
The goal of Physiology II is to introduce the student to the principles and the concepts of circulatory, endocrine, respiratory and urinary physiology that are pertinent to the practice of veterinary medicine. Other goals are to introduce the student to physiopathology and clinical problem-solving techniques and to help the student understand the relatioship between physiology and the practice of veterinary medicine.
General Competences
  • Apply knowledge in practice
  • Retrieve, analyse and synthesise data and information, with the use of necessary technologies
  • Make decisions
  • Work autonomously
  • Work in teams
  • Advance free, creative and causative thinking
Course Content (Syllabus)
Physiology II (41 hours) Endocrine glands- Hormones - Cardiovascular System Locomotor system- Sensory organs-Blood–Haemopoietic tissues-Respiratory System- Urinary System A. Endocrine glands-Hormones Instructor M. Tsantarliotou 1st hour: Hormones: what they are, functions and types; control of production, release and transportation of hormones. Methods for demonstrating hormone concentration 2nd hour; Hypothalamic control of pituitary gland secretion, the physiological role of growth hormone and somatomedins (IGFs) 3rd hour: Control of growth hormone release. disorders. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH): mechanism of action, control of secretion. Oxytocin: mechanism of action, control of secretion 4th hour: Hormones of pancreatic islets: insulin, glucagons, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide: mechanism of action, control of secretion 5th hour: Synthesis, release and transportation of thyroid hormones, mechanism of action 6th hour: Control of thyroid hormone secretion, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism. Regulation of the extracellular calcium concentration: parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, vitamin D: mechanisms of action 7th hour: Control of secretion of parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, vitamin D. Hypoparathyroid, hyperparathyroid, rickets 8th hour: Aldosterone: mechanism of action, control of secretion. Cortisol: mechanism of action, control of secretion. Secretion abnormalities of the adrenal cortex 9th-10th hour: Stress. Melatonin, mechanism of action Biological rhythm 3 hours Hormonal regulation of rat blood glucose (Lab) 3 hours Endocrinology (Computer-Assisted) B. Cardiovascular System I. Taitzoglou 1st hour: Cardiac muscle: Properties of the cardiac muscle cells, action potentials. Effect of the autonomic nervous system and inorganic ions on the cardiac function 2nd hour: The specialized cardiac muscle cells that initiate and organize each heartbeat. The specialized conducting system of the heart 3rd hour: The electrocardiogram: Standardized electrocardiographic leads, electrical dysfunctions of the heart 4th hour: The heart as a pump, cardiac cycle, stroke volume, ejection fraction 5th hour: Cardiac output, end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume. Starling’s law of the heart, cardiac sounds, cardiac murmurs. The pathologic consequences of cardiac defects result in abnormal pressures, volumes and workloads in cardiac chambers 6th hour: The systemic and pulmonary circulations. Arterial blood pressure, vascular resistance, Poiseuille’s law, blood flow in organs 7th hour: Systolic-diastolic-pulse pressure 8th- 9th hour: Capillaries and fluid exchange. Fick’s law of diffusion. The Starling equation, the lymphatic system, edema 10th hour: Local control of blood flow 11th hour: Neural and hormonal control of blood pressure and blood volume 12th hour: Integrated cardiovascular responses M. Sachana 13th hour: Energy metabolism in the cardiac muscle S. Lavrentiadou 14th- 15th hour: Blood composition and functions, Plasma and its proteins, Red blood cells: structure and function, hemoglobin, metabolism, blood groups. Erythropoiesis and erythropoietin, Anemias, White blood cells: WBC production, differential WBC count, Platelets 16th – 17th hour: Hemostasis-Fibrinolysis Practicals 3 hours: ECG (rabbit) 3 hours: Cardiomyogram (frog) 3 hours: Red blood cell count 3 hours: White blood cell count 3 hours: Differential white blood cell count 3 hours: Hematocrit. Blood group determination C. Respiratory System I. Taitzoglou 18th hour: Pulmonary ventilation and pulmonary circulation. Changes of pleural and alveolar pressures. Lung compliance. Pulmonary volumes and capacities. The effect of dead space on alveolar ventilation 19th hour: Airway, lung tissue and chest wall resistance. Composition of inspired, expired and alveolar air (relation to atmospheric air). Normal ventilation, hyperventilation, hypoventilation. Blood flow changes and blood distribution through the different parts of the lungs during ventilation 20th hour: Diffusion of gases through the respiratory membrane. Transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide in blood and body fluids. The respiratory quotient 21st hour: Respiratory regulation and rhythm (chemical and mechanical factors affecting respiration). Periodic breathing. Respiratory insufficiency (pulmonary emphysema, pneumonia, asthma, tuberculosis, pulmonary edema) 22nd hour: Respiratory regulation during exercise. Other functions of respiratory system Practicals 3 hours: Recording changes in pulmonary volume [in humans] (Lab) D. Urinary System M. Tsantarliotou 1st hour: Fluid compartments, dynamic equilibrium of body water, renal function, glomerular filtration, concept of renal clearance 2nd hour: Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), the renal circulation, autoregulation of GFR, and renal clearance measurements. Changes in GFR, measurement of GFR, inulin, creatinin, the effects of renal pathology 3rd hour: Tubular reabsorption and secretion. Types of mechanisms: active, passive 4th hour: The countercurrent mechanism for the concentration and dilution of the urine, control of water permeability of collecting ducts by ADH. ADH action on cells, the role of aldosterone, urea reabsorption, renal control of body calcium and phosphate 5th-6th hour: Blood pH and [H+]. Buffers-bicarbonate, phosphate, proteins, respiratory control of acid-base balance, and renal control of H+ concentration 7th -8th hour: Acid-base balance disorders, micturition reflex, role of spinal cord and brain stem, micturition disorders M. Sachana 9th hour: Energy metabolism in the kidneys Practicals 3 hours: Renal Physiology (Computer-Assisted)
Educational Material Types
  • Slide presentations
  • Multimedia
  • Book
  • Quizzes for Self-evaluation
Use of Information and Communication Technologies
Use of ICT
  • Use of ICT in Course Teaching
  • Use of ICT in Laboratory Teaching
  • Use of ICT in Communication with Students
Course Organization
Laboratory Work
Interactive Teaching in Information Center
Written assigments
Quizzes, for Self-evaluation
Student Assessment
Student Assessment methods
  • Written Exam with Multiple Choice Questions (Summative)
  • Written Exam with Short Answer Questions (Summative)
  • Written Exam with Extended Answer Questions (Summative)
  • Written Assignment (Summative)
  • Written Exam with Problem Solving (Summative)
  • Labortatory Assignment (Summative)
Course Bibliography (Eudoxus)
"ΚΤΗΝΙΑΤΡΙΚΗ ΦΥΣΙΟΛΟΓΙΑ" Cunningham, 5η έκδοση, Εκδόσεις Ροτόντα, 2018
Additional bibliography for study
"Duke's Physiology of Domestic Animals", 12th ed.,W Reece,2004
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