Pharmaceutical Analysis I

Course Information
TitleΦαρμακευτική Ανάλυση Ι / Pharmaceutical Analysis I
FacultyHealth Sciences
Cycle / Level1st / Undergraduate
Teaching PeriodWinter
Course ID600013743

Programme of Study: PPS Tmīmatos Farmakeutikīs (2018-)

Registered students: 161
OrientationAttendance TypeSemesterYearECTS
KORMOSCompulsory Course325.5

Class Information
Academic Year2020 – 2021
Class PeriodWinter
Faculty Instructors
Weekly Hours4
Class ID
Course Type 2016-2020
  • Background
Mode of Delivery
  • Face to face
Digital Course Content
Language of Instruction
  • Greek (Instruction, Examination)
Learning Outcomes
The course enables students not only to identify medicines(active ingredients) but also to quantify them in their pure form, in pharmaceutical formulations and in biological liquids. This kind of knowledge is considered fundamental and essential for a possible future professional employment of a Pharmacy graduate in a Pharmaceutical Analysis Laboratory (in addition it includes instrumentation and sampling: dispersive instruments-photomultiplier detectors-rapid scan ultraviolet/visible spectrometers-linear photodiode arrays –Fourier Transform ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometers etc.)
General Competences
  • Apply knowledge in practice
  • Retrieve, analyse and synthesise data and information, with the use of necessary technologies
  • Work autonomously
  • Work in teams
Course Content (Syllabus)
Quality control of analytical methods: Introduction, Analytical errors, Accuracy and precision, Validation of analytical procedures. Standard procedure for the determination of paracetamol in tablets. Combined random errors. Applications of statistics in small numbers of data. Terms used to control analytical procedures Physical and chemical properties of drug molecules: Introduction, Calculation of pH values. Acid, basic strength and pKa. Henderson-Hasselbach equation. Ionization of drugs. Buffers. Salts hydrolysis. Activity, ionic strength, dielectric constant. Partition coefficient. Drug stability. Stereochemistry of drugs. Measurement of optical rotation. Profiles of physicochemical properties of some drug molecules. Methods of volumetric and chemical analysis: Direct / indirect acid / base volumetric, non-aqueous volumetric, argentimetric titrations, complexometric titrations, reductive titrations, iodometric titrations, volumetric titrations, Karl-Fischer volumetric titrations, automated FIA automation Ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy: Introduction, Factors governing absorption of radiation in the UV/visible region. Beer-Lambert law, instrumentation, Instrumentation, Diode array instruments, Instrument calibration, UV spectra of some representative drug molecules, Use of UV/visible spectrophotometry to determine pKa values, Applications of UV/visible spectroscopy to pharmaceutical quantitative analysis, Difference spectrophotometry, Derivative spectra, Applications of UV/visible spectroscopy in preformulation and formulation Infrared spectrophotometry:Introduction, Factors determining intensity and energy level of absorption in IR spectra, Instrumentation, Sample preparation, Application of IR spectrophotometry in structure elucidation, Examples of IR spectra of drug molecules, IR spectrophotometry as a fingerprint technique, Infrared spectrophotometry as a method for identifying polymorphs, Near-infrared analysis (NIRA), Infrared spectrophotometry, Examples of NIRA applications Fluorescence spectrophotometry: Introduction, Instrumentation, Molecules which exhibit fluorescence, Factors interfering with fluorescence intensity, Applications of fluorescence spectrophotometry in pharmaceutical analysis Raman spectroscopy: Introduction, Instrumentation, Applications Atomic spectrophotometry Atomic emission spectrophotometry (AES): Introduction, Instrumentation, Examples of quantitation by AES, Interferences in AES analysis, Assays based on the method of standard additions, Atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS): Introduction, Instrumentation Examples of assays using AAS, Some examples of limit tests employing AAS, Inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy: Introduction, Instrumentation, Proton (1H), Application of NMR to structure confirmation in some drug molecules, Carbon NMR, Two-dimensional NMR spectra, Application of NMR to quantitative analysis, Other specialised applications of NMR
Educational Material Types
  • Notes
  • Slide presentations
  • Interactive excersises
Use of Information and Communication Technologies
The laboratory content of the module has been enriched with electronic educational material that is special software in CD-ROM format which contains the spectra of some representative medicines as well as their spatial configurations, that is, the chemical structure in space (bonds length, ring arrangement, various bonds angles) so that the relation of the structure of the medicine with the relevant spectrum to be obvious. Moreover, a large part of the laboratory practice is done by the students with the application of a special UVPC programme. The lectures of the modules are enriched by multimedia use (power point presentations, videos etc).
Course Organization
Laboratory Work39
Written assigments28
Student Assessment
Once the laboratory course is successfully completed with a pass mark and the laboratory notebook is handed in corrected, each student with his/her team should hand in a paper on an earlier assigned topic (the paper should be corrected). At the end of the academic year, students have to undergo oral exams. After having completed the above mentioned obligations, students can participate in the written exams of the pharmaceutical analysis modules. Cooperativeness and interpersonal relationship with the instructor plays an important role in the student assessment.
Student Assessment methods
  • Written Exam with Short Answer Questions (Formative)
  • Written Exam with Extended Answer Questions (Formative)
  • Written Assignment (Formative)
  • Oral Exams (Formative)
  • Written Exam with Problem Solving (Formative)
  • Labortatory Assignment (Formative)
Course Bibliography (Eudoxus)
ΦΑΡΜΑΚΕΥΤΙΚΗ ΑΝΑΛΥΣΗ, Κωδικός Βιβλίου στον Εύδοξο: 41965278 ISBN 9789605830380
Additional bibliography for study
Αρχές Ενόργανης Ανάλυσης Συγγραφείς: Skoog, Holler, Crouch
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