The course aims to equip future teachers of foreign languages with the necessary background in order to be able to decode and understand the design of units in textbooks constructed to teach foreign languages, to create their own materials and thus become high quality language teachers. The main objective of the course is for future teachers to understand the different methodological approaches developed in language education and how that influenced teaching practice. In particular, emphasis is placed on:
• developing awareness in language teaching
• opening new paths and increasing the options that a language teacher could use
• challenging teaching stereotypes and maintaining vigor in teaching profession
• updating new techniques in order to better address problems in a language classroom
• decoding books and software
• selecting a method or change it, in relation to the results and attitude of students
• proceeding with a selective approach to teaching, ie not religious adherence to a method but selection of ideas, strategies and actions from different methods (eclectic approach).
• finding materials to solve problems in the classroom
At the end of the course students should be able to:
• Evaluate course books before they adopt them for use in the classroom by making use the evaluation tools they were taught during the course
• Decode course books through the step approach offered in classroom.
• Integrate course books and course materials in their teaching with the criteria presented in class.
• Select an appropriate, to the situation, method by making use the overall knowledge in language didactics analysed in class.
• Correct student errors in harmony with the method they selected to teach in class.
• Preserve their role according to the method they selected to teach.
• Become aware of the differences and similarities of the methods developed over the years by comparing those with the framework presented in class.
Course Content (Syllabus)
The course is divided into 3 sections or cycles. In each section different themes are discussed: The first section contains two lessons devoted to introduce the module at the beginning of the semester and the final class related to the final exams at the end of the semester. The second section provides an initial discussion on terminology and traditional and modern teaching methods, and learning theories. The third section is devoted to learning theories and to compare methods of teaching and learning theories. The second and third section, form the core of the course, with lectures on cognitive aspects, class work, seminars and practice.
In his lectures the instructor presents and discusses issues related to the subject while in the workshops and the seminar the students are actively involved, having been prepared on the issue by autonomous learning. During the semester there are four lectures, three weeks autonomous learning, one seminar, three quizzes, and two classes dedicated to course information and the final examinations. In particular:
1) definition of terms
2) european policies concerning language teaching and learning
3) approaches, methods and strategies
4) three most important approaches
5) the 6 level of language learning
6) qualititave and quantitative characteristics of language learning
7) deciphering of language teaching methods in textbooks
Teaching, Learning, Methodology, Language Education
Students are offered four different approaches to complete the course, leading to four different methods of evaluation (see below):
1. Traditional mode. The students attend a series of lectures, a seminar and a workshop on different topics related to the theme. In addition, there are periods of autonomous learning for preparation on the topics before the seminar or the workshop, which require active participation by the student. The seminar is offered by colleagues from the same school, university, or from another university - via live face to face classes or through SKYPE, either through videotaped lessons sent by international scholars or though video selected from UTUBE, or finally, by invited experts from the private sector. The workshop works with the active participation of students and it is organized after autonomous study by the students in a prearranged topic. Students studying independently (or in groups – in the form of communities of practice) and arrive at conclusions which are later presented and discussed in the classroom. Finally, in these workshops experts on the subject, academics or individuals from the private sector are invited, for live or distance collaboration.
The course evolves over a period of 13 weeks with 3-hour lessons per week, a total of 39 hours: a) theory 12 hours, b) autonomous learning, 9 hours, d) class work on understanding findings from research on the topic, 3 hours, e) seminar, 3 hours, f) quiz, 9 hours and g) course introduction and exam information, 6 hours. Additionally 26 hours for student counseling are offered during the course through tutorials.
2. Autonomous learning or supervised study. Those students who select this approach need to study the learning material autonomously and come in face to face or through SKYPE contact with the instructor every week (tutorials), individually or in groups of up to four people. Also, they are invited to attend via SKYPE seminars which are offered during the course. Monitoring of their work can be performed via an external partner, expert on the subject, or the course instructor. This option is designed primarily for students who cannot access the university premises due to some disability or heavy work schedule.
3. Independent primary empirical research. The students who select this approach study the material offered (by secondary research) related to the issue they wish to deal with and then investigate a hypothesis. They are in constant contact with the instructor face to face or via SKYPE. This approach is offered as an option to students who teach large groups of pupils in state or private schools. The completed study is presented at the end of the semester to the instructor and is submitted for presentation at international conferences and publication in scientific journals. Also, these students are invited to attend via SKYPE seminars offered during the course.
4. Independent secondary research. The student approaches a subject through secondary research, studying the views of other researchers on the issue. His/her study results in solid conclusions on the topic. During the semester there is continuous face to face or via SKYPE contact with the instructor. Also, these students are invited to attend the via SKYPE seminars offered during the course.
The above options are not associated with the cognitive abilities of the students or their general skills (which I'm sure they would be sufficient for any work) but based on existing knowledge on the subject, their motivation and their personal obligations during the course. The ultimate goal is to support students for successful completion of the module with the largest scientific benefits for them. Finally, discussions via SKYPE are recorded and sent to students at the end of the conversation as supporting material for their learning.
Following there are four different approaches to course evaluation:
1) those students who attend classes are invited to participate to three quizzes held during the semester, the average of which will also be the final score. In case of failure these can take the final exam,
2) those who attend from distance are lead to the final examination,
3) those who prepare a research paper do not have to seat in final examinations.
Final examinations are related to applications of theories and methods discussed during the course. A list of topics for the final examinations is offered on Blackboard.
An excellent exam paper should have:
a) the content relevant to the query. Unnecessary data show inability to select the relevant information required for the development of the text, while creating a negative mood to the examiner. 50% of the final grade.
b) proper use of the relevant terminology. Correct use of the terms mentioned in the literature. 15% of the final grade.
c) consistency in the development of the text. The text provided by the student requires high cohesion. It should be made clear to the examiner how the author reaches conclusions (from A to B and then to C, etc). 15% of the final grade.
d) critical view. The opinion of the student in the presentation of the relevant literature on the subject is an asset. 10% of the final grade.
e) literature reference. References to articles and views of other authors show knowledge of the literature on the subject. 10% of the final grade.
Additional bibliography for study
Στο μάθημα αυτό γίνεται χρήση εκτενούς βιβλιογραφίας. Ο στόχος είναι να μελετηθούν όσοι το δυνατόν περισσότεροι συγγραφείς, έτσι ώστε οι φοιτητές να εκτεθούν σε διαφορετικές απόψεις. Αρχικά γίνεται εντοπισμός του θέματος είτε στα περιεχόμενα είτε στο index και στην συνέχεια στις σελίδες που αναφέρονται εκεί. Δεν είναι απαραίτητο να διαβασθεί ολόκληρο το βιβλίο εκτός και αν εντοπισθούν σε αυτό θέματα που εγείρουν το προσωπικό ενδιαφέρον του φοιτητή και δεν συζητούνται στο μάθημα. Αναμφίβολα, η εύρεση νέας βιβλιογραφίας και νέων απόψεων (είτε από συγγραφείς είτε προσωπικές) είναι απόλυτα αποδεκτές και επιθυμητές, εφόσον κατατίθεται με επιχειρήματα (προσωπικά ή από την βιβλιογραφία).
Όσοι τους φοιτητές δικαιούνται βιβλία από τον Εύδοξο μπορούν να επιλέξουν αυτό που θεωρούν ότι καλύπτει περισσότερα από τα θέματα που συζητούνται κατά την διάρκεια του εξαμήνου. Παρακαλούνται οι φοιτητές να μην ζητούν την προσωπική παρέμβαση του διδάσκοντα καθώς αυτό είναι αντιδεοντολογικό και προσωπικό τους δικαίωμα.
Τα παρακάτω βιβλία και άρθρα βρίσκονται στην βιβλιοθήκη του τμήματος ή σε άλλες βιβλιοθήκες της φιλοσοφικής για χρήση των φοιτητών. Συμπληρωματικό υλικό διανέμεται στην τάξη.
- Rod Ellis (1985) Understanding Second Language Acquisition OUP
- Eli Hinkel (1999) Culture in Second Language Teaching and Learning CUP
- Dörnyei Z. (2005). The Psychology of the Language Learner Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
- Doughty, C.J. and Long, M.H. (2003). The Handbook of Second Language Acquisition Blackwell Publishing
- Dulay, H., Burt, M., and Krashen, S. (1982). La seconda Lingua Il Mulino pp. 117-141 ‘personalita, eta’, 143-169 ‘ruolo della prima lingua’, 191-258 ‘gli errori’ Το βιβλίο αυτό καλύπτει τους γενικούς όρους του μαθήματος. Είναι καλό να χρησιμοποιηθεί σε συνδυασμό με το βιβλίο του Rod Ellis.
- O’Malley, J.M., Chamot, A.U. (1990). Learning Strategies in Second Language Acquisition. Cambridge University Press
- Titore, R. (1977) Insegnare oggi le lingue Societa editrice internazionale pp. 37-48 ‘linguistice contrastiva, 51-70 aspetti psicologici e socio-educative, 75-96 varieta linguistiche
- Council of Europe (συλλογική δουλειά συνεργατών του ΣτΕ), 2002. Quadro comune europeo di riferimento per le lingue: apprendimento insegnamento valutazione. Milano: La Nuova Italia.
- Mezzadri M., 2003. I ferri del mestiere: (Auto)formazione per l’insegnante di lingue. Perugia: Guerra.
- Vedovelli M., 2002. Guida all’italiano per stranieri. Roma: Carocci Editore.
- Richards J.C., Rodgers Th.S., 2001. Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.